SingleStore DB

CLI Offline Deployment - Red Hat Distribution


Installing SingleStore DB on bare metal, on virtual machines, or in the cloud can be done through the use of popular configuration management tools or through SingleStore’s management tools.

In this guide, you will deploy a SingleStore DB cluster onto physical or virtual machines and connect to the cluster using our monitoring, profiling, and debugging tool, SingleStore DB Studio Overview.

A four-node cluster is the minimal recommended cluster size for showcasing SingleStore DB as a distributed database with high availability; however, you can use the procedures in this tutorial to scale out to additional nodes for increased performance over large data sets or to handle higher concurrency loads. To learn more about SingleStore’s design principles and topology concepts, see Distributed Architecture.


There are no licensing costs for using up to four license units for the leaf nodes in your cluster. If you need a larger cluster with more/larger leaf nodes, please create an Enterprise License trial key.


For this tutorial you will need:

  • One (for single-host cluster-in-a-box for development) or four physical or virtual machines (hosts) with the following:

    • Each SingleStore DB node requires at least four (4) x86_64 CPU cores and eight (8) GB of RAM per host

    • Eight (8) vCPU and 32 GB of RAM are recommended for leaf nodes to align with license unit calculations

    • Running 64-bit version of RHEL/CentOS 6 or higher or Debian 8 or higher, with kernel 3.10 or higher

    • Port 3306 open on all hosts for intra-cluster communication. This default can be changed in the cluster file.

    • Port 8080 open on the main deployment host for the cluster

    • A non-root user with sudo privileges available on all hosts in the cluster that be used to run SingleStore DB services and own the corresponding runtime state

  • SSH access to all hosts (installing and using ssh-agent is recommended for SSH keys with passwords).

    • If using SSH keys, make sure the identity key used on the main deployment host can be used to log in to the other hosts.

    • Refer to How to Setup Passwordless SSH Login for more information on using SSH without a password.

  • A connection to the Internet to download required packages

If running this in a production environment, it is highly recommended that you follow our host configuration recommendations for optimal cluster performance.

Duplicate Hosts

As of SingleStore DB Toolbox 1.4.4, a check for duplicate hosts is performed before SingleStore DB is deployed, and will display a message similar to the following if more than one host has the same SSH host key:

✘ Host check has the same ssh
host keys as, toolbox doesn't support
registering the same host twice

Confirm that all specified hosts are indeed different and aren’t using identical SSH host keys. Identical host keys can be present if you have instantiated your host instances from images (AMIs, snapshots, etc.) that contain existing host keys. When a host is cloned, the host key (typically stored in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_<cipher>_key) will also be cloned.

As each cloned host will have the same host key, an SSH client cannot verify that it is connecting to the intended host. The script that deploys SingleStore DB will interpret a duplicate host key as an attempt to deploy to the same host twice, and the deployment will fail.

The following steps demonstrate a potential remedy for the duplicate hosts message. Please note these steps may slightly differ depending on your Linux distribution and configuration.

$ sudo root
# ls -al /etc/ssh/
# rm /etc/ssh/<your-ssh-host-keys>
# ssh-keygen -f /etc/ssh/<ssh-host-key-filename> -N '' -t rsa1
# ssh-keygen -f /etc/ssh/<ssh-host-rsa-key-filename> -N '' -t rsa
# ssh-keygen -f /etc/ssh/<ssh-host-dsa-key-filename> -N '' -t dsa

For more information about SSH host keys, including the equivalent steps for Ubuntu-based systems, refer to Avoid Duplicating SSH Host Keys.

As of SingleStore DB Toolbox 1.5.3, sdb-deploy setup-cluster supports an --allow-duplicate-host-fingerprints option that can be used to ignore duplicate SSH host keys.

Network Configuration

Depending on the host and its function in deployment, some or all of the following port settings should be enabled on hosts in your cluster.

These routing and firewall settings must be configured to:

  • Allow database clients (e.g. your application) to connect to the SingleStore DB aggregators

  • Allow all nodes in the cluster to talk to each other over the SingleStore DB protocol (3306)

  • Allow you to connect to management and monitoring tools


Default Port





Inbound and Outbound

For host access. Required between nodes in SingleStore DB tool deployment scenarios. Also useful for remote administration and troubleshooting on the main deployment host.




To get public repo key for package verification. Required for nodes downloading SingleStore APT or YUM packages.



Inbound and Outbound

Default port used by SingleStore DB. Required on all nodes for intra-cluster communication. Also required on aggregators for client connections.



Inbound and Outbound

Default port for SingleStore DB Studio. (Only required for the host running Studio.)

The service port values are configurable if the default values cannot be used in your deployment environment. For more information on how to change them, see:

We also highly recommend configuring your firewall to prevent other hosts on the Internet from connecting to SingleStore DB.

Install SingleStore Tools

The first step in deploying your cluster is to download and install the SingleStore Tools on one of the hosts in your cluster. This host will be designated as the main deployment host for deploying SingleStore DB across your other hosts and setting up your cluster.

These tools perform all major cluster operations including downloading the latest version of SingleStore DB onto your hosts, assigning and configuring nodes in your cluster, and other management operations. For the purpose of this guide, the main deployment host is the same as the designated Master Aggregator of the SingleStore DB cluster.

Note: If SingleStore DB is installed as a sudo user via packages, systemd will automatically start the associated SingleStore DB processes when a host is rebooted.

Offline Installation - Red Hat Distribution

Download the following SingleStore packages onto a device with access to the main deployment host.





Transfer SingleStore DB Files

Transfer the singlestore-client, singlestoredb-toolbox, and singlestoredb-studio packages onto the main deployment host and install them using rpm.

sudo rpm -ivh /tmp/singlestore-client-<version>.x86_64.rpm && \
sudo rpm -ivh /tmp/singlestoredb-toolbox-<version>.x86_64.rpm && \
sudo rpm -ivh /tmp/singlestoredb-studio-<version>.x86_64.rpm

You do not need to install the singlestoredb-server package in this step. It will be installed as part of deployment, which is shown in the next step.

Deploy SingleStore DB


Before deploying a SingleStore DB cluster in a production environment, please review and follow the host configuration recommendations.

Failing to follow these recommendations will result in sub-optimal cluster performance.

Notes on Users and Groups

The user that deploys SingleStore DB via SingleStore DB Toolbox must be able to SSH to each host in the cluster. When singlestoredb-server is installed via an RPM or Debian package when deploying SingleStore DB, a memsql user and group are also created on each host in the cluster.

This memsql user does not have a shell, and attempting to log in or SSH as this user will fail. The user that deploys SingleStore DB is added to the memsql group. This group allows most Toolbox commands to run without sudo privileges, and members of this group can perform many Toolbox operations without the need to escalate to sudo. Users who desire to run SingleStore DB Toolbox commands must be added to the memsql group on each host in the cluster. They must also be able to SSH to each host.

Manually creating a memsql user and group is only recommended in a sudo-less environment when performing a tarball-based deployment of SingleStore DB. In order to run SingleStore DB Toolbox commands against a cluster, this manually-created memsql user must be configured so that it can SSH to each host in the cluster.

Minimal Deployment

SingleStore DB has been designed to be deployed with at least two nodes:

  • A Master Aggregator node that runs SQL queries and aggregates the results, and

  • A single leaf node, which is responsible for storing and processing data

These two nodes can be deployed on a single host (via the cluster-in-box option), or on two hosts, with one SingleStore DB node on each host.

While additional aggregators and nodes can be added and removed as required, a minimal deployment of SingleStore DB always consists of at least these two nodes.

CLI Offline Deployment

You can deploy SingleStore DB onto each host from the main deployment host and create the SingleStore DB nodes for your cluster.

From the main deployment host, deploy the SingleStore DB on all of your hosts using the setup-cluster command. Hosts are specified via the --master-host, --aggregator-hosts, and --leaf-hosts flags as comma-separated host names. The --password flag specifies the password for the root database user.

Other than the main deployment host being specified as the --master-host, the other hosts in your cluster can be used as hosts for the child aggregator or leaf nodes.

Specify the absolute path to the singlestoredb-server RPM or Debian package you downloaded in the previous step.

sdb-deploy setup-cluster -i /path/to/yourSSHkey \
    --file-path <singlestoredb-server-package> \
    --license <license_key> \
    --master-host <main_IP_address> \
    --aggregator-hosts <child_agg_IP_address> \
    --leaf-hosts <leaf1_IP_address>,<leaf2_IP_address> \
    --password <secure_password>

For large clusters with many hosts, it may be inconvenient to have to input all the host names in the command line. In place of the individual flags, you may instead use a cluster file. See the Cluster File Deployment for more information.

Note: If your license key is not shown in the code block above, you can retrieve it from the SingleStore Customer Portal.


If your host does not have the which command available, you will need to specify the package through the --force-package-format {rpm|deb} flag when running the setup-cluster command.

The setup-cluster command does several things for you:

  • Installs the latest singlestoredb-server package on all hosts in your cluster.

  • Deploys SingleStore DB engine across all of the hosts in your cluster.

  • Creates the master aggregator. In this tutorial, the master aggregator resides on the main deployment host.

  • Creates any child aggregators specified in either the host file or in the command-line.

  • Creates leaf nodes for your cluster. Note: The setup-cluster command only creates one node per host. If your host is NUMA capable and has more than one NUMA node, you can install additional leaf nodes.

  • By default, the setup-cluster command will also enable High Availability. To disable High Availability, use the flag --high-availability=false in the setup-cluster command.

After you have deployed your cluster, run sdb-admin optimize. This command checks your current cluster configuration against a set of best practices and either makes changes to maximize performance or provides recommendations for you. For hosts with NUMA support, this command will bind the leaf nodes to specific NUMA nodes.

sdb-admin optimize

If you encounter errors running either of these commands, verify that your deployment environment satisfies the following conditions:

  • You can SSH to every host in the cluster using the IPs specified in the setup-cluster step above.

  • Your deployment user has root or sudo privileges in order to install packages on all hosts:

    sudo apt-get install ...
  • Port 3306 on all hosts is open to all other hosts in the cluster.


If this deployment method is not ideal for your target environment, you can choose one that fits your requirements from the Deployment Options.

Interact with your Cluster
Start Studio

On your main deployment host, run the following command to use SingleStore DB Studio to monitor and interact with your cluster.

Enable the SingleStore DB Studio service to start SingleStore DB Studio at system boot (recommended).

sudo systemctl enable singlestoredb-studio.service
Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/ → /lib/systemd/system/memsql-studio.service.

SSH into your main deployment host and run the following:

sudo systemctl start singlestoredb-studio

If your Linux distribution does not use systemd, you can run SingleStore DB Studio directly instead.

sudo singlestoredb-studio &

The Studio Web server will now be running on port 8080, which can be accessed via Web browser at http://<main-deployment-host>:8080.

Add a New Cluster to Studio
  1. With SingleStore DB Studio running, go to http://<main_deployment_host>:8080 and click Add New Cluster to set up a cluster.


    SingleStore DB Studio is only supported on Chrome and Firefox browsers at this time.

    To run Studio on a different port, add port = <port_name> to /etc/singlestore/singlestoredb-studio.hcl and restart Studio.

  2. Paste the main deployment host IP address into Hostname.

  3. Set Port to 3306.

  4. Specify root as the Username.

  5. In the Password field, provide the Superuser password that was set during cluster deployment.

  6. Click Create Cluster Profile and set Type as Development.

  7. Fill in Cluster Name and Description to your preference.

After you have successfully logged in, you will see the dashboard for your cluster. To run a query against your cluster, navigate to the SQL Editor through the navigation in the left pane.

Next Steps After Deployment

Now that you have installed SingleStore DB and connected to SingleStore DB Studio, check out the following resources to continue your learning: