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Cluster-in-a-Box CLI Offline Deployment - Red Hat Distribution

Introduction

Installing SingleStoreDB on bare metal, on virtual machines, or in the cloud can be done through the use of popular configuration management tools or through SingleStore’s management tools.

In this guide, you will deploy a SingleStoreDB cluster onto physical or virtual machines and connect to the cluster using our monitoring, profiling, and debugging tool, SingleStoreDB Studio.

A four-node cluster is the minimal recommended cluster size for showcasing SingleStoreDB as a distributed database with high availability; however, you can use the procedures in this tutorial to scale out to additional nodes for increased performance over large data sets or to handle higher concurrency loads. To learn more about SingleStore’s design principles and topology concepts, see Distributed Architecture.

Notice

There are no licensing costs for using up to four license units for the leaf nodes in your cluster. If you need a larger cluster with more/larger leaf nodes, please create an Enterprise License trial key.

Prerequisites

For this tutorial you will need:

  • One (for single-host cluster-in-a-box for development) or four physical or virtual machines (hosts) with the following:

    • Each SingleStoreDB node requires at least four (4) x86_64 CPU cores and eight (8) GB of RAM per host

    • Eight (8) vCPU and 32 GB of RAM are recommended for leaf nodes to align with license unit calculations

    • Running a 64-bit version of RHEL/CentOS 6 or late or Debian 8 or later, with kernel 3.10 or later

    • Port 3306 open on all hosts for intra-cluster communication. Based on the deployment method, this default can be changed either from the command line or via cluster file.

    • Port 8080 open on the main deployment host for the cluster

    • A non-root user with sudo privileges available on all hosts in the cluster that be used to run SingleStoreDB services and own the corresponding runtime state

  • SSH access to all hosts (installing and using ssh-agent is recommended for SSH keys with passwords).

    • If using SSH keys, make sure the identity key used on the main deployment host can be used to log in to the other hosts.

    • Refer to How to Setup Passwordless SSH Login for more information on using SSH without a password.

  • A connection to the Internet to download required packages

If running this in a production environment, it is highly recommended that you follow our host configuration recommendations for optimal cluster performance.

Duplicate Hosts

As of SingleStoreDB Toolbox 1.4.4, a check for duplicate hosts is performed before SingleStoreDB is deployed, and will display a message similar to the following if more than one host has the same SSH host key:

✘ Host check failed.host 172.26.212.166 has the same ssh
host keys as 172.16.212.165, toolbox doesn't support
registering the same host twice

Confirm that all specified hosts are indeed different and aren’t using identical SSH host keys. Identical host keys can be present if you have instantiated your host instances from images (AMIs, snapshots, etc.) that contain existing host keys. When a host is cloned, the host key (typically stored in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_<cipher>_key) will also be cloned.

As each cloned host will have the same host key, an SSH client cannot verify that it is connecting to the intended host. The script that deploys SingleStoreDB will interpret a duplicate host key as an attempt to deploy to the same host twice, and the deployment will fail.

The following steps demonstrate a potential remedy for the duplicate hosts message. Please note these steps may slightly differ depending on your Linux distribution and configuration.

$ sudo root
# ls -al /etc/ssh/
# rm /etc/ssh/<your-ssh-host-keys>
# ssh-keygen -f /etc/ssh/<ssh-host-key-filename> -N '' -t rsa1
# ssh-keygen -f /etc/ssh/<ssh-host-rsa-key-filename> -N '' -t rsa
# ssh-keygen -f /etc/ssh/<ssh-host-dsa-key-filename> -N '' -t dsa

For more information about SSH host keys, including the equivalent steps for Ubuntu-based systems, refer to Avoid Duplicating SSH Host Keys.

As of SingleStoreDB Toolbox 1.5.3, sdb-deploy setup-cluster supports an --allow-duplicate-host-fingerprints option that can be used to ignore duplicate SSH host keys.

Network Configuration

Depending on the host and its function in deployment, some or all of the following port settings should be enabled on hosts in your cluster.

These routing and firewall settings must be configured to:

  • Allow database clients (e.g. your application) to connect to the SingleStoreDB aggregators

  • Allow all nodes in the cluster to talk to each other over the SingleStoreDB protocol (3306)

  • Allow you to connect to management and monitoring tools

Protocol

Default Port

Direction

Description

TCP

22

Inbound and Outbound

For host access. Required between nodes in SingleStoreDB tool deployment scenarios. Also useful for remote administration and troubleshooting on the main deployment host.

TCP

443

Outbound

To get public repo key for package verification. Required for nodes downloading SingleStore APT or YUM packages.

TCP

3306

Inbound and Outbound

Default port used by SingleStoreDB. Required on all nodes for intra-cluster communication. Also required on aggregators for client connections.

TCP

8080

Inbound and Outbound

Default port for Studio. (Only required for the host running Studio.)

The service port values are configurable if the default values cannot be used in your deployment environment. For more information on how to change them, see:

We also highly recommend configuring your firewall to prevent other hosts on the Internet from connecting to SingleStoreDB.

Install SingleStore Tools

Caution

Studio should be installed on a host that is open to local (internal) network traffic only, and not open to the Internet.

The first step in deploying your cluster is to download and install the SingleStore Tools on one of the hosts in your cluster. This host will be designated as the main deployment host for deploying SingleStoreDB across your other hosts and setting up your cluster.

These tools perform all major cluster operations including downloading the latest version of SingleStoreDB onto your hosts, assigning and configuring nodes in your cluster, and other management operations. For the purpose of this guide, the main deployment host is the same as the designated Master Aggregator of the SingleStoreDBcluster.

Note: If SingleStoreDB is installed as a sudo user via packages, systemd will automatically start the associated SingleStoreDB processes when a host is rebooted.

Offline Installation - Red Hat Distribution

Download the following SingleStore packages onto a device with access to the main deployment host.

singlestoredb-toolbox

singlestoredb-studio

singlestore-client

singlestoredb-server

Transfer SingleStoreDB Files

Transfer the singlestore-client, singlestoredb-toolbox, and singlestoredb-studio packages onto the main deployment host and install them using rpm.

sudo rpm -ivh /tmp/singlestore-client-<version>.x86_64.rpm && \
sudo rpm -ivh /tmp/singlestoredb-toolbox-<version>.x86_64.rpm && \
sudo rpm -ivh /tmp/singlestoredb-studio-<version>.x86_64.rpm

You do not need to install the singlestoredb-server package in this step. It will be installed as part of deployment, which is shown in the next step.

Deploy SingleStoreDB

Prerequisites

Warning

Before deploying a SingleStoreDBcluster in a production environment, please review and follow the host configuration recommendations. Failing to follow these recommendations will result in sub-optimal cluster performance.

In addition, SingleStore recommends that each Master Aggregator and child aggregator reside on its own host when deploying SingleStoreDB in a production environment.

Notes on Users and Groups

The user that deploys SingleStoreDB via SingleStoreDB Toolbox must be able to SSH to each host in the cluster. When singlestoredb-server is installed via an RPM or Debian package when deploying SingleStoreDB, a memsql user and group are also created on each host in the cluster.

This memsql user does not have a shell, and attempting to log in or SSH as this user will fail. The user that deploys SingleStoreDB is added to the memsql group. This group allows most Toolbox commands to run without sudo privileges, and members of this group can perform many Toolbox operations without the need to escalate to sudo. Users who desire to run SingleStoreDB Toolbox commands must be added to the memsql group on each host in the cluster. They must also be able to SSH to each host.

Manually creating a memsql user and group is only recommended in a sudo-less environment when performing a tarball-based deployment of SingleStoreDB. In order to run SingleStoreDB Toolbox commands against a cluster, this manually-created memsql user must be configured so that it can SSH to each host in the cluster.

Minimal Deployment

SingleStoreDB has been designed to be deployed with at least two nodes:

  • A Master Aggregator node that runs SQL queries and aggregates the results, and

  • A single leaf node, which is responsible for storing and processing data

These two nodes can be deployed on a single host (via the cluster-in-box option), or on two hosts, with one SingleStoreDB node on each host.

While additional aggregators and nodes can be added and removed as required, a minimal deployment of SingleStoreDB always consists of at least these two nodes.

Cluster-in-a-Box CLI Offline Deployment

Notice

If you are deploying SingleStoreDB on a host or virtual machine (VM), and want to connect to the cluster from a separate host or the VM's host, set the bind address from 127.0.01 to 0.0.0.0.

To do so, include either:

Option 1: Command Line

You can deploy your SingleStoreDB cluster on a single host using the sdb-deploy cluster-in-a-box command. This command will create two nodes: A Master Aggregator node that runs SQL queries and aggregates the results, and a single leaf node, which is responsible for storing and processing data. These two nodes form the most basic SingleStoreDB cluster.

  • The default port for the Master Aggregator can be changed by adding the --master-port option and specifying the desired port.

  • The default port for the leaf node can be changed by adding the --leaf-port option and specifying the desired port.

If you are deploying in an environment without Internet access, you must specify the absolute path to the singlestoredb-server RPM or Debian package you downloaded in the previous step.

sdb-deploy cluster-in-a-box --license <license> \
--file-path <singlestoredb-server-package> \
--password <secure-password>

Option 2: Cluster File

This example is equivalent to sdb-deploy cluster-in-a-box, where a single-host cluster is created with two nodes: a Master Aggregator and a single leaf node.

For offline deployments, where the main deployment host cannot connect to the Internet:

Replace memsql_server_version with memsql_server_file_path to specify the location of the singlestoredb-server, .rpm, or .deb file downloaded previously. This must be the full path to singlestoredb-server, including the singlestoredb-server filename.

license: <license-from-portal.singlestore.com>
memsql_server_file_path: </singlestoredb-server/including/path>
package_type: <rpm|deb>
hosts:
- hostname: 127.0.0.1
  localhost: true
  nodes:
  - register: false
    role: Master
    config:
      password: <secure-password>
      port: 3306
  - register: false
    role: Leaf
    config:
      password: <secure-password>
      port: 3307

Using this cluster configuration file, sdb-deploy setup-cluster:

  1. Registers a single, local host to the cluster.

  2. Installs singlestoredb-server on this local host.

  3. Creates a Master Aggregator node on port 3306 and sets the SingleStoreDB password to the one specified in the cluster file.

  4. Creates a leaf node on port 3307 and sets the SingleStoreDB password to the one specified in the cluster file.

  5. Run the following with the path to the cluster file as input.

    sdb-deploy setup-cluster --cluster-file </path/to/cluster-file>
    

Additional Deployment Options

Notice

If this deployment method is not ideal for your target environment, you can choose one that fits your requirements from the Deployment Options.

Interact with your Cluster

Start Studio

On your main deployment host, run the following command to use Studio to monitor and interact with your cluster.

Enable the Studio service to start Studio at system boot (recommended).

sudo systemctl enable singlestoredb-studio.service
****
Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/memsql-studio.service → /lib/systemd/system/memsql-studio.service.

SSH into your main deployment host and run the following:

sudo systemctl start singlestoredb-studio

If your Linux distribution does not use systemd, you can run Studio directly instead.

sudo singlestoredb-studio &

The Studio Web server will now be running on port 8080, which can be accessed via Web browser at http://<main-deployment-host>:8080.

Add a New Cluster to Studio

  1. With Studio running, go to http://<main_deployment_host>:8080 and click Add New Cluster to set up a cluster.

    Important

    Studio is only supported on Chrome and Firefox browsers at this time.

    To run Studio on a different port, add port = <port_name> to /etc/singlestore/singlestoredb-studio.hcl and restart Studio.

  2. Paste the main deployment host IP address or hostname into Hostname.

  3. Set Port to 3306.

  4. Specify root as the Username.

  5. In the Password field, provide the Superuser password that was set during cluster deployment.

  6. Click Create Cluster Profile and set Type as Development.

  7. Fill in Cluster Name and Description to your preference.

After you have successfully logged in, you will see the dashboard for your cluster. To run a query against your cluster, navigate to the SQL Editor through the navigation in the left pane.

Next Steps After Deployment

Now that you have installed SingleStoreDB and connected to Studio, check out the following resources to continue your learning: