Skip to main content

UI Online Deployment - Red Hat Distribution

Introduction

Installing SingleStoreDB on bare metal, on virtual machines, or in the cloud can be done through the use of popular configuration management tools or through SingleStore’s management tools.

In this guide, you will deploy a SingleStoreDB cluster onto physical or virtual machines and connect to the cluster using our monitoring, profiling, and debugging tool, SingleStoreDB Studio.

A four-node cluster is the minimal recommended cluster size for showcasing SingleStoreDB as a distributed database with high availability; however, you can use the procedures in this tutorial to scale out to additional nodes for increased performance over large data sets or to handle higher concurrency loads. To learn more about SingleStore’s design principles and topology concepts, see Distributed Architecture.

Notice

There are no licensing costs for using up to four license units for the leaf nodes in your cluster. If you need a larger cluster with more/larger leaf nodes, please create an Enterprise License trial key.

Prerequisites

For this tutorial you will need:

  • One (for single-host cluster-in-a-box for development) or four physical or virtual machines (hosts) with the following:

    • Each SingleStoreDB node requires at least four (4) x86_64 CPU cores and eight (8) GB of RAM per host

    • Eight (8) vCPU and 32 GB of RAM are recommended for leaf nodes to align with license unit calculations

    • Running a 64-bit version of RHEL/CentOS 6 or late or Debian 8 or later, with kernel 3.10 or later

    • Port 3306 open on all hosts for intra-cluster communication. Based on the deployment method, this default can be changed either from the command line or via cluster file.

    • Port 8080 open on the main deployment host for the cluster

    • A non-root user with sudo privileges available on all hosts in the cluster that be used to run SingleStoreDB services and own the corresponding runtime state

  • SSH access to all hosts (installing and using ssh-agent is recommended for SSH keys with passwords).

    • If using SSH keys, make sure the identity key used on the main deployment host can be used to log in to the other hosts.

    • Refer to How to Setup Passwordless SSH Login for more information on using SSH without a password.

  • A connection to the Internet to download required packages

If running this in a production environment, it is highly recommended that you follow our host configuration recommendations for optimal cluster performance.

Duplicate Hosts

As of SingleStoreDB Toolbox 1.4.4, a check for duplicate hosts is performed before SingleStoreDB is deployed, and will display a message similar to the following if more than one host has the same SSH host key:

✘ Host check failed.host 172.26.212.166 has the same ssh
host keys as 172.16.212.165, toolbox doesn't support
registering the same host twice

Confirm that all specified hosts are indeed different and aren’t using identical SSH host keys. Identical host keys can be present if you have instantiated your host instances from images (AMIs, snapshots, etc.) that contain existing host keys. When a host is cloned, the host key (typically stored in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_<cipher>_key) will also be cloned.

As each cloned host will have the same host key, an SSH client cannot verify that it is connecting to the intended host. The script that deploys SingleStoreDB will interpret a duplicate host key as an attempt to deploy to the same host twice, and the deployment will fail.

The following steps demonstrate a potential remedy for the duplicate hosts message. Please note these steps may slightly differ depending on your Linux distribution and configuration.

$ sudo root
# ls -al /etc/ssh/
# rm /etc/ssh/<your-ssh-host-keys>
# ssh-keygen -f /etc/ssh/<ssh-host-key-filename> -N '' -t rsa1
# ssh-keygen -f /etc/ssh/<ssh-host-rsa-key-filename> -N '' -t rsa
# ssh-keygen -f /etc/ssh/<ssh-host-dsa-key-filename> -N '' -t dsa

For more information about SSH host keys, including the equivalent steps for Ubuntu-based systems, refer to Avoid Duplicating SSH Host Keys.

As of SingleStoreDB Toolbox 1.5.3, sdb-deploy setup-cluster supports an --allow-duplicate-host-fingerprints option that can be used to ignore duplicate SSH host keys.

Network Configuration

Depending on the host and its function in deployment, some or all of the following port settings should be enabled on hosts in your cluster.

These routing and firewall settings must be configured to:

  • Allow database clients (e.g. your application) to connect to the SingleStoreDB aggregators

  • Allow all nodes in the cluster to talk to each other over the SingleStoreDB protocol (3306)

  • Allow you to connect to management and monitoring tools

Protocol

Default Port

Direction

Description

TCP

22

Inbound and Outbound

For host access. Required between nodes in SingleStoreDB tool deployment scenarios. Also useful for remote administration and troubleshooting on the main deployment host.

TCP

443

Outbound

To get public repo key for package verification. Required for nodes downloading SingleStore APT or YUM packages.

TCP

3306

Inbound and Outbound

Default port used by SingleStoreDB. Required on all nodes for intra-cluster communication. Also required on aggregators for client connections.

TCP

8080

Inbound and Outbound

Default port for Studio. (Only required for the host running Studio.)

The service port values are configurable if the default values cannot be used in your deployment environment. For more information on how to change them, see:

We also highly recommend configuring your firewall to prevent other hosts on the Internet from connecting to SingleStoreDB.

Install SingleStore Tools

Caution

Studio should be installed on a host that is open to local (internal) network traffic only, and not open to the Internet.

The first step in deploying your cluster is to download and install the SingleStore Tools on one of the hosts in your cluster. This host will be designated as the main deployment host for deploying SingleStoreDB across your other hosts and setting up your cluster.

These tools perform all major cluster operations including downloading the latest version of SingleStoreDB onto your hosts, assigning and configuring nodes in your cluster, and other management operations. For the purpose of this guide, the main deployment host is the same as the designated Master Aggregator of the SingleStoreDBcluster.

Note: If SingleStoreDB is installed as a sudo user via packages, systemd will automatically start the associated SingleStoreDB processes when a host is rebooted.

Online Installation - Red Hat Distribution

Run the following commands to install SingleStore Tools.

sudo yum-config-manager --add-repo https://release.memsql.com/production/rpm/x86_64/repodata/memsql.repo && \
sudo yum install -y singlestore-client singlestoredb-toolbox singlestoredb-studio

Troubleshooting

If SingleStore Tools cannot be installed using the above commands, verify the following and re-run the above commands to install SingleStore Tools.

  • Verify that the SingleStore repo information is listed under repolist.

    sudo yum repolist
    ****
    repo id            repo name            status
    memsql             MemSQL               125
  • Verify that the which package is installed. This is used during the install process to identify the correct package type for your installation.

    rpm -q which
    • If which is not installed, you must install it before proceeding.

      sudo yum install -y which
    • If you cannot install which, you will need to specify the package as rpm during the deployment phase.

  • If you receive an error that the GPG check failed, which resembles the following:

    Importing GPG key <gpg-key>:
     Userid     : "MemSQL Release Engineering <security@memsql.com>"
     Fingerprint: <fingerprint>
     From       : https://release.memsql.com/release-aug2018.gpg
    Key import failed (code 2). Failing package is: singlestore-client-1.0.7-1.x86_64
     GPG Keys are configured as: https://release.memsql.com/release-aug2018.gpg
    Public key for singlestoredb-studio-4.0.7-7ce5bef293.x86_64.rpm is not installed.
    Failing package is: singlestoredb-studio-4.0.7-1.x86_64
     GPG Keys are configured as: https://release.memsql.com/release-aug2018.gpg
    Public key for singlestoredb-toolbox-1.13.13-9fa4ef2d34.x86_64.rpm is not installed.
    Failing package is: singlestoredb-toolbox-1.13.13-1.x86_64
     GPG Keys are configured as: https://release.memsql.com/release-aug2018.gpg
    The downloaded packages were saved in cache until the next successful transaction.
    You can remove cached packages by executing 'yum clean packages'.
    Error: GPG check FAILED
    • View the current crypto policies.

      update-crypto-policies --show
    • If SHA1 is not present, update the crypto policies to work with SingleStore Tools.

      sudo update-crypto-policies --set DEFAULT:SHA1

      Refer to Using system-wide cryptographic policies for more information.

Deploy SingleStoreDB

Prerequisites

Warning

Before deploying a SingleStoreDBcluster in a production environment, please review and follow the host configuration recommendations. Failing to follow these recommendations will result in sub-optimal cluster performance.

In addition, SingleStore recommends that each Master Aggregator and child aggregator reside on its own host when deploying SingleStoreDB in a production environment.

Notes on Users and Groups

The user that deploys SingleStoreDB via SingleStoreDB Toolbox must be able to SSH to each host in the cluster. When singlestoredb-server is installed via an RPM or Debian package when deploying SingleStoreDB, a memsql user and group are also created on each host in the cluster.

This memsql user does not have a shell, and attempting to log in or SSH as this user will fail. The user that deploys SingleStoreDB is added to the memsql group. This group allows most Toolbox commands to run without sudo privileges, and members of this group can perform many Toolbox operations without the need to escalate to sudo. Users who desire to run SingleStoreDB Toolbox commands must be added to the memsql group on each host in the cluster. They must also be able to SSH to each host.

Manually creating a memsql user and group is only recommended in a sudo-less environment when performing a tarball-based deployment of SingleStoreDB. In order to run SingleStoreDB Toolbox commands against a cluster, this manually-created memsql user must be configured so that it can SSH to each host in the cluster.

Minimal Deployment

SingleStoreDB has been designed to be deployed with at least two nodes:

  • A Master Aggregator node that runs SQL queries and aggregates the results, and

  • A single leaf node, which is responsible for storing and processing data

These two nodes can be deployed on a single host (via the cluster-in-box option), or on two hosts, with one SingleStoreDB node on each host.

While additional aggregators and nodes can be added and removed as required, a minimal deployment of SingleStoreDB always consists of at least these two nodes.

UI Online Deployment

Notice

The user that deploys SingleStoreDB via the UI must also be able to SSH into each host in the cluster without using a password.

As of SingleStoreDB Toolbox 1.6, SingleStoreDB can be deployed via browser-based UI. This option describes how to deploy SingleStoreDB using this UI. Please review the prerequisites prior to deploying SingleStoreDB.

In order to use this method of UI deployment, the user (and the user account that will deploy SingleStoreDB) must:

  • Be able to install SingleStoreDB and SingleStoreDB Toolbox 1.6 using RPM or Debian packages.

  • Deploy a standard SingleStoreDB configuration. Advanced options, such as those available with a cluster deployment via a YAML file, are also available in the UI.

Start the UI

Run the following command to start the UI.

  1. Run the following on the command line.

    sdb-deploy ui

This command will display a link with a secure token that you can use to deploy SingleStoreDB via the UI.

For additional options that can be used with sdb-deploy ui, refer to the associated reference page.

Access the UI

Copy and paste this link into a Chrome or Firefox browser to access the UI.

Note: You may need to modify the URL by changing localhost to a hostname or IP address depending on how and where you installed SingleStore Tools. The hostname or IP address must be that of the main deployment host, which is typically the Master Aggregator.

Deploy SingleStoreDB

Follow installation instructions in the UI to deploy SingleStoreDB.

Troubleshooting

  • Message: unknown command "ui" for "sdb-deploy"

    Solution: Confirm that SingleStoreDB Toolbox v1.6 or later has been installed on the main deployment host.

  • Message: sdb-deploy ui is not currently supported by SingleStoreDB.

    Solution: The installed version of SingleStoreDB Toolbox does not support deploying SingleStoreDB via the UI. Please select another deployment option.

  • Message: Registered hosts detected. SingleStoreDB Toolbox supports managing only one cluster per instance. To view them, run 'sdb-toolbox-config list-hosts'. To remove them, run 'sdb-toolbox-config unregister-host'

    Solution: SingleStoreDB Toolbox can only manage a single instance of SingleStoreDB.

Additional Deployment Options

Notice

If this deployment method is not ideal for your target environment, you can choose one that fits your requirements from the Deployment Options.

Interact with your Cluster

Start Studio

On your main deployment host, run the following command to use Studio to monitor and interact with your cluster.

Enable the Studio service to start Studio at system boot (recommended).

sudo systemctl enable singlestoredb-studio.service
****
Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/memsql-studio.service → /lib/systemd/system/memsql-studio.service.

SSH into your main deployment host and run the following:

sudo systemctl start singlestoredb-studio

If your Linux distribution does not use systemd, you can run Studio directly instead.

sudo singlestoredb-studio &

The Studio Web server will now be running on port 8080, which can be accessed via Web browser at http://<main-deployment-host>:8080.

Add a New Cluster to Studio

  1. With Studio running, go to http://<main_deployment_host>:8080 and click Add New Cluster to set up a cluster.

    Important

    Studio is only supported on Chrome and Firefox browsers at this time.

    To run Studio on a different port, add port = <port_name> to /etc/singlestore/singlestoredb-studio.hcl and restart Studio.

  2. Paste the main deployment host IP address or hostname into Hostname.

  3. Set Port to 3306.

  4. Specify root as the Username.

  5. In the Password field, provide the Superuser password that was set during cluster deployment.

  6. Click Create Cluster Profile and set Type as Development.

  7. Fill in Cluster Name and Description to your preference.

After you have successfully logged in, you will see the dashboard for your cluster. To run a query against your cluster, navigate to the SQL Editor through the navigation in the left pane.

Next Steps After Deployment

Now that you have installed SingleStoreDB and connected to Studio, check out the following resources to continue your learning: